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,];uNty; (Israel)

(fHj;jH NghuhLfpwhH)


ahf;NfhG ngdpNaypy; xU Njt kD\NdhL thjhbdNghJ mtDf;F ,g;ngaH nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. (Mjp.32:28). Gpd;G mtd; gjhd; muhkpypUe;J te;j gpd;G kWgbAk; Njtd; mtDf;Fj; juprdkhfp mtid MrPHtjpj;J ,];uNty; vd;W Ngupl;lhH. (Mjp.35:10).

mjd; gpd;G mtDf;F ,];uNty; vd;Wk; mtd; re;jjpahUf;F ,];uNty; Gj;jpuH vd;Wk; ngaH toq;fpw;W. (Mjp.32:32. 34:7> 49:16).

MdhYk; vfpg;jpypUe;J fp.K 1491 y; Gwg;gl;l gpd;Ng mtHfs; xU [hjpahf kjpf;fg;gl;L vgpnuaH vd;W miof;fg;gl;lhHfs;. vgpnuaH vd;gjd; mHj;jk; mf;fiuahH. Mgpuhk; Ig;gpuhj;J ejpiaf; fle;J te;jgbahy; me;jg;ngaH Vw;gl;bUf;fyhk;.

ahf;Nfhgpd; Fkhud; fhdhd; Njrj;jpypUe;j fhyj;jpy; ngupa gQ;rk; cz;lhapw;W. mf;fhyj;jpy; ahf;Nfhgpd; xU kfdhfpa NahNrg;G vfpg;J Njrj;jpy; Nkyhd epiyikapypUe;jhd;. mtd; mtHfis mioj;jjpdhy; mq;Nf Ngha; FbNawpdhHfs; (fp.K1706).

NahNrg;G fp.K1635,y; khpj;jgpd; vfpg;J ,uh[hf;fs; ,e;j [dq;fisf; nfhLukha; elj;jpdhHfs;. mtHfspd; $f;Fuiyj; Njtd; Nfl;L NkhNria mDg;gp mtd; %yk; mtHfis tpLtpj;jhH. NkhNr vfpg;Jf;Fg; Ngha; ghHNthNdhL Ngrp mw;Gjq;fisr; nra;J cj;juT ngw;W [dq;fisf; $l;bf;nfhz;L Nghdhd;.

ehD}w;W Kg;gJ tUl mbikj;jdj;jpd; gpd; [dq;fs; vfpg;jpypUe;J fp.K 1491 y; Gwg;gl;lhHfs;. NkhNr mtHfSf;Fj; jiytdhapUe;jhd;.

mtd; mtHfis topelj;jp rpte;j rKj;jpuj;ijf; fle;J rPdha; kiyabthuj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L Nghdhd;. mq;Nf Njtd; mtHfSf;Fg; gpurd;dkhfp jk;ik ntspg;gLj;jp iff;nfhs;sNtz;ba fw;gidfisf; nfhLj;J mtHfisf; fhdhd; Njrj;Jf;Ff; nfhz;L Nghtjhfr; nrhd;dhH (fp.K 1491).

nka;j;Njtd; xUtNu mtiuay;yhky; nrh&gq;fisAk; NtNw NjtHfisAk; tzq;ff; $lhnjd;W Njtd; nrhy;ypapUe;Jk; NkhNr rPdha; kiyapy; Vwpg;Ngha; jpUk;gptuj; jhkjpj;jNghJ [dq;fs; xU fd;Wf;Fl;bia tsHg;gpj;J mij tzq;fpdhHfs;. NkhNr kiyapapUe;J ,wq;fpte;J mijf; fz;L [dq;fSf;fhfj; Njtdplk; thjhb kd;dpg;Gg; ngw;whd; (ahj;.32:1-35).

,];uNtyH ehw;gJ tUlk; tdhe;juj;jpy; gpuahzk; nra;jhHfs;. mNef ehl;fs; fhNj]; gHNdahtpy; jq;fpapUe;jhHfs;. NkhNr mtHfSf;Fj; jPHf;fjhprpAk; MrhupaDk; mjpfhhpAkhapUe;jhd;.

NkYk; NjtDila fl;lisg;gb XH Mrhhpg;Gf; $lhuj;ijAk; rhl;rp ngl;biaAk; mjpd;Nky; ,uz;L NfUgPd;fisAk; cz;lhf;fp mJ fHj;jUila rpq;fhrdk; vd;W mt;tpjNk mtiuj; njhOJnfhs;Sk;gb NkhNr [dq;fSf;Fr; nrhd;dhd; (ahj;.Mjp.35-40 fp.K 1490).

vfpg;jpypUe;J Gwg;gl;l ,uz;lhk; tUlj;jpy; [dj;njhif vLf;fg;gl;lJ. (vz;.1:4).

fhNj]; gHNdahtpypUe;J fhdhd; Njrj;ijr; Rw;Wg;ghHf;Fk;gb NkhNr Ml;fis mDg;gpdhd;. mtHfs; jpUk;gpte;J JHr;nra;jp nrhy;yNt [dq;fs; Gyk;gpdhHfs;. ,jpdpkpj;jk; [dq;fs; ehw;gJ tUlk; tdhe;juj;jpy; miye;J jphpaNtz;b te;jJ. Nghfpw topapy; NkhthgpaNuhLk; kPjpahdpaNuhLk; Aj;jk; nra;jhHfs;. NahHjhDf;F mUfpy; te;jNghJ &gd; fhj; kdhNrapd; ghjpNfhj;jpuq;fSf;F ,f;fiuapy; Njrk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ (NahR.12:1-6).

Nkupghtpd; jz;zPuz;il ele;j rk;gtj;jpd; epkpj;jk; NkhNrAk; MNuhDk; thf;Fj;jj;jk; gz;zg;gl;l Njrj;jpw;Fg; Nghf Kbatpy;iy. MNuhd; fp.K 1452y; khpj;jhd;. NkhNr fp.K 1451y; khpj;jhd;.

NkhNrapd; ];jhdj;jpy; NahRthTf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. mtd; [dq;fis NahHjhd; Mw;Wf;$lhf top elj;jp vupf;Nfh gl;lzj;ijf; fp.K 1451y; gpbj;jhd;. gpd;G NtW gl;lzq;fisAk; ifg;gw;wp mNef [hjpfisf; fPo;g;gLj;jpdhd;. mg;nghOJ Ie;J ,uh[hf;fs; cld;gbf;if nra;Jnfhz;L ,tDf;F tpNuhjkhf te;jNghJ mtHfis fpgpNahdpy; Njhw;fbj;Jf; nfhd;WNghl;L Njrq;fisAk; iftrg;gLj;jpdhd;. ,];uNtypd; kw;wf; Nfhj;jpuq;fs; ntt;NtW gFjpfspy; FbNawpdhHfs;. Kd; mq;NfapUe;jf; fhdhdpaiuj; Juj;jhky; mtHfNshL fye;J [Ptpj;jhHfs;.

mg;gbNa ehsiltpy; ,];uNtyH fhdhdpaUila gof;f tof;fq;fisf; fw;Wf;nfhz;lNjhL ghfhy; tzf;fj;jpYk; gofpf;nfhz;lhHfs;. XNu Njt tzf;fj;ij tpl;Ltpl;Lg; gy NjtHfisAk; Nrtpj;jhHfs;.

,t;tpjkha; jq;fis vfpg;jpd; mbikj;jdj;jpypUe;J kPl;L mw;Gjtpjkha; tdhe;ju gpuahzj;jpy; topelj;jp fhdhd; Njrj;ij Rje;jpukhff; nfhLj;j [PtDs;s Njtid kwe;j ,e;j [dj;jpd; epiy ,g;gbahapw;W. fhdhdpaH ,tHfisf; fPo;gLj;jj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. ,tHfSila ,dj;jtuhd NkhthgpaUk; mk;NkhdpaUk; te;J ,tHfisf; nfhs;isabj;jhHfs;. rj;JUf;fshfpa ngyp];jH ,tHfSf;F ,Lf;fz; nra;jhHfs;. gpd;G NahRthTk; fp.K1427y; khpj;jhd;.
 

epahahjpgjpfspd; fhyk;
(fp.K 1427- fp.K 1095)


,g;gbg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; Njtd; [dq;fspd; ghJfhg;Gf;fhf fhyj;Jf;Ff; fhyk; epahahjpgjpfis vOg;gpdhH. mtHfs; xLf;fg;gl;l ,];uNty; [dq;fis kPl;Lf;nfhz;L jq;fs; jq;fs; ChpypUe;J mjpfhuk; nrYj;jpdhHfs;.

Njt Mtpapdhy; ,tHfs; elj;jg;gl;lhHfs; vd;gij [dq;fs; mwpe;J mtHfSf;Ff; fPo;gbe;jpUe;jhHfs;. ,e;j epahahjpgjpfisg; gw;wp epah.3:8-16:31 tiu Fwpj;Js;sJ. 480 tUl fhykha; ,g;gb ele;jJ. (1,uh.6:1) mjhtJ vfpg;jpypUe;J Gwg;gl;l fhyk; njhlq;fp Njthyak; fl;lj;njhlq;fpd fhyk; tiu epahahjpgjpfspd; fhyk; (332 tUlq;fs;) vdyhk;.

,tHfspd; tpRthrj;jpdhy; ew;rhl;rp ngw;wtHfs; fpjpNahd;. ghuhf rpk;Nrhd; nag;jh rhKNty; vd;gtHfNs (vgp.11:32).

Vypapd; ehl;fspy; ngyp];jNuhL Aj;jk; ele;jNghJ NjtDila ngl;b gpbf;fg;gl;lJ. ngyp];jH VOkhjk; mij itj;jpUe;jhHfs; (1rhK.6:1) jpUg;gp mDg;gptpl;lNghJ mijf; fPupahj; ahhPkpd; kD\H mgpdjhgpd; tPl;by; itj;jhHfs;. jhtPJ mij vUrNyKf;Ff; nfhz;L NghFk;tiu ,UgJ tUlk; mq;Nf ,Ue;jJ.
 

rhKNtypd; Copak;
(fp.K 1150-1095)


,];uNtyUf;Fk; ngyp];jUf;Fkpilapy; ele;j Aj;jj;jpy; Vypapd; FkhuH nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;. VypAk; khpj;jhd;. mg;nghOJ Njtd; rhKNtiy vOg;gpdhH. ,td; [dq;fspd; ghtj;ij mtHfSf;F czHj;jp ghfhy; tzf;fj;ij tpl;L tpl;L fHj;jH xUtUf;Nf Muhjid nra;Ak;gb Vtpdhd;. [dq;fs; mg;gbr;nra;J NjtDila cjtpahy; ngyp];jiu Kwpabj;jhHfs;.

rhKNty; tNahjpgdhdNghJ mtDila FkhuUk; xOq;fha; elthjjpdhy; [dq;fs; jq;fSf;F xU ,uh[h Ntz;Lnkd;W Nfl;lhHfs;. rhKNty; mij Vw;Wf;nfhs;shjpUe;Jk; NjtDila ntspg;gLj;jypd;gb mtd; rTiyj;njupe;J mtHfSf;F ,uh[hthf Vw;gLj;jpdhd; (1rhK. mjp.10).
 

rTYila MSif
(fp.K 1905-1055)


rTy; Kjy; Kjy; mk;NkhdpaNuhL Aj;jk; nra;J mtHfisj; Njhw;fbj;jhd;. rhKNtypd; MNyhridg;gb mtd; ele;Jnfhz;l Ntisapy; mtDf;F vy;yhk; mD$ykhapUe;jJ. rTYila kfd; Nahdj;jhDk; ngyp];jH Nky; ntw;wp rpwe;jhd;. rTy; mkNyf;fpaUf;F tpNuhjkhf Aj;jk; nra;ifapy; rhKNtypd; nrhw;gb nra;ahjjpdhy; fHj;jH mtidf; iftpl;lhH. Aj;jj;jpy; mtDk; Nahdj;jhDk; nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;. (1rhK.mjp 31).
 

jhtPjpd; MSif
(fp.K1055-1015).


rTypd; gpd; jhtPJ ,];uNtypd; ,uh[hthdhd;. mtd; mNef jlitfspy; ngyp];jiuj; Njhw;fbj;J mtHfis Kw;wha; fPo;gLj;jpdhd;. Vohk; tUlk; vUrNyikf; ifg;gw;wp mij jiyefuhf;fpdhd;. rPNahd; kiyNky; xU $lhuk; fl;b fHj;jupd; ngl;biaf; nfhz;Lte;J mq;Nf itj;J mij [dq;fs; Nrtpf;fpwjw;fhf xU kj;jpa];jhdkhf;fpdhd;. gpw;ghL Njthyak; mt;tplj;jpNyNa fl;lg;gl;lJ. jhtPJ Rw;wptu ,Ue;j [hjpfisf; fPo;gLj;jp ,];uNtypd; RahjPdj;ij ];jhgpj;J xU nghpa ,uh[;aj;ij epiyg;gLj;jpdhd;. ,e;j ,uh[;ak; vfpg;jpd; vy;iy njhlq;fp mf;fghFlh ehL topaha; Igpuhj;J ejptiu gutpapUe;jJ.
 

rhNyhNkhdpd; MSif
(fp.K1015-975)


jhtPJ KjpH tajhdNghJ jd; Fkhudhfpa rhnyhNkhid jd;Dila ];jhdj;jpy; ,uh[hthf;fpdhd; (1.,uh.2:1-46. 1.ehsh.mjp.28-29). ,td; ngupa fl;blq;fisf;fl;b ,uh[ gupthuk; itj;J Nkk;ghlhd [Ptpak; nra;jhd;. Njtd; mtDf;Fj; juprdkhfp eP tpUk;Gfpwijf; Nfs; vd;W nrhd;dNghJ mtd; QhdKs;s ,Ujaj;ijf; Nfl;ljhy; Njtd; gphpag;gl;L mijAk; mNjhL IRthpaj;ijAk; fPHj;jpiaAk; kfpikiaAk; mtDf;Ff; nfhLj;jhH (1,uh.3:12).

MdhYk; mtd; mNef me;epa ];jpupfisr; NrHj;Jf;nfhz;lhd;. thpg;gzq;fis [dq;fsplk; fz;bg;gha; t#ypj;jhd;. ,itfspd; epkpj;jk; [dq;fSf;Fs; jpUg;jpaPdKk; fyf;fKk; cz;lhdJ. me;epa ];jpupfspdpkpj;jk; me;epa NjtHfisAk; ,uh[h gpd;gw;wpdhd;. fHj;jH nrhg;gdj;jpy; ,Utpir mtid vr;rupj;Jk; NjtDf;Ff; fPo;gbahjjhy; mtd; Nky; NfhgkhdhH.

rhnyhNkhd; fp.K 930y; khpj;jNghJ ,uh[;ak; ,uz;lhfg; gpupe;jJ (fp.K 975) ,];uNty; Nfhj;jpuq;fs; ,U gFjpahapd. A+jh ngd;[kPd; Nfhj;jpuq;fs; ,Ue;j Njrk; njd; ,uh[;ak; vdg;gl;L rhyNkhdpd; Fkhudhfpa nunfhngahk; gf;fkhapd. kw;wf;Nfhj;jpuq;fs; nanuhngahikj; jq;fSf;F ,uh[hthfj; njupe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,J tUl ,uh[;ak; vdg;gl;lJ. ,jd;gpd; ,itfs; A+jh ,uh[;ak; ,];uNty; ,uh[;ak; vd KiwNa nrhy;yg;gl;ld.

,t;tpuz;L ,uh[;aq;fSk; 250 tUlkhf eilngw;wd. ,jw;fpilapy; ,UgFjpahUf;Fkpilapy; fhyj;Jf;Ff; fhyk; tpNuhjKk; If;fpaKk; cz;lhapd.

A+jh ,uh[;aj;jpy; nunfhngahk; njhlq;fp MrhtiuAk; ,];uNtypd; ngnuhngahk; njhlq;fp xk;hp tiuAk; mWgj;njhU tUlk; (fp.K975-914) tpNuhjkpUe;jJ. (1,uh.mjp.12-16).

Nahrghj;jpd; kfd; Mfhgpd; kfis tpthfk; nra;jjpd;Ngwhf 75 tUlk; (fp.K 914-839) mtHfSf;fpilapy; rkhjhdk; ,Ue;jJ. (1,uh.16. 2,uh.mjp.13).

mjd; gpd;G kWgbAk; tpNuhjKz;lhapw;W. A+jhtpd; mkj;rpah Jtf;fp vNrf;fpah tiuAk; ,];uNtypy; Nahtfh]; Jtf;fp Xrpah tiuAk; E}w;wpg;gjpNdO tUlk; (fp.K 839.722) tpNuhjk; ,Ue;jJ. (2.,uh.mjp.13-18).

filrpapy; ,];uNty; fp.K 722y; mrPhpauhy; rpiwg;gl;lhHfs;. A+jh fp.K 586-y; ghgpNyhdpauhy; rpiwg;gl;Lg;NghdhHfs;.

mrPhpahTf;Ff; fg;gq;fl;bf;; nfhz;L te;j ,];uNty; ,uh[hthfpa Xrpah vfpg;jpd; cjtpia ek;gp fg;gk; fl;lhky; tpl;ljpdhy; mtd; rpiwahf;fg;gl;lhd;. MrPhpah rkhjpajit %d;W tUlk; Kw;Wif Nghl;L gpbj;J jd; trkhf;fpf; nfhz;lhd; (fp.K 721). mq;fpUe;J [dq;fisAk; ifjpfshff; nfhz;L NghdhHfs;. ,];uNty; ,uh[;ak; ,NjhL Kbtile;jJ..

,];uNty; ,uh[hf;fs;
(fp.K 937-721)


nanuhngahk; 1 22 tUlk;
ehjhg; 2 tUlk;
gh\h 12 tUlk;
Vyh 2 tUlk;
rpk;hp-hpg;dp 4 tUlk;
xk;hp 6 tUlk;
Mfhg; 22 tUlk;
mfrpah 2 tUlk;
nanfhuhk; 12 tUlk;
na$ 28 tUlk;
Nahtfh]; 17tUlk;
Nahth]; 16 tUlk;
nanuhngahk; 2 41 tUlk;
rfhpah 6 tUlk;
ry;Y}k; 1 tUlk;
nkdhNfk; 13 tUlk;
ngf;fhfpah 2 tUlk;
ngf;fh 20 tUlk; (Kjyhk; rpiw).
Xnrah 9 tUlk;

(mrPhpauhy; rpiwg;gl;lJ) ,uh[;ak; Kbtile;jJ (fp.K721).

mrPhpah ,uh[h gpw Njrq;fspypUe;J kD\iuf; nfhz;L te;J rkhhpahtpy; FbNaw;wpdhd;. mtHfs; jq;fs; nja;tq;fisf; nfhz;Lte;J rkhhpahtpd; Nfhapy;fspy; itj;jhHfs;.

kPjpahapUe;j ,];uNtyUk; fHj;jUf;Fg; gae;jpUe;Jk; ,e;jj; nja;tq;fisAk; Nrtpj;jhHfs; (2.,uh.17:28-35).

,];uNtyH jq;fs; Njtdhfpa fHj;jUf;F tpNuhjkha;g; ghtQ;nra;jgbahy; ,g;gb ele;jJ. mtHfs; nra;j JNuhfk; 2.,uh.17:7-19y; tpghpj;Js;sJ. MfNt gpw;fhyq;fspy; A+jH ,tHfisg; Gwf;fzpj;jhHfs;. A+jh ,uh[hthfpa vNrf;fpah fp.K 705y; g];fhg;gz;bifia Mrhpj;J mjw;Fr; rkhhpahtpy; ,Ue;jtHfisAk; mioj;J khHf;ftp\aj;jpy; ahiuAk; If;fpag;gLj;j Kad;whd;. (2.ehsh. mjp.30). mtDila Ngud; NahrpahTk; mg;gbNa nra;ag; gpuahrg;gl;lhd; (2.ehsh.mjp.35).

,e;j Nehf;fj;NjhL Nahrpah nkfpNjhgpy; ghHNthd; NeNfhit vjpHj;j Ntisapy; nfhy;yg;gl;lhd; (fp.K 625). ,];uNty; ,uh[;ak; vfpg;jpw;Ff; fPo;g;gl;bUe;jJ. gpd;G fp.K 606 y; NeGfhj;Ner;rH vUrNyikf;ifg;gw;wpdhd;. Njthyak; fp.K 586y; mopf;fgl;lJ (2.,uh.mjp.25).

vOgJ tUlk; rpiwapUg;gpd; gpd; (fp.K 539) ngHrpa ,uh[hthfpa Nfhuh]; ghgpNyhidf; ifg;gw;wpd gpd; vUrNyk; Njthyaj;ijf; fl;Lk;gb A+jUf;F cj;juT nfhLj;J mtHfSf;F Vw;w cjtpfisAk; nra;jhd;.

NfhNu]; A+jhtpd; mjpgjpahfpa Nr];ghj;rhhplk; Njthyag;gzp Kl;Lf;fisAk; nfhLj;JDg;gpdhd; (fp.K 536) ,tHfs; vUrNyKf;Fg; Ngha; xU gypgPlq;fl;b gyp nrYj;jpd gpd; Njthyaj;jpw;F m];jpghuk; Nghl;lhHfs;. mg;nghOJ rkhhpaH jq;fisAk; ,];uNtyH NrHj;Jf;nfhs;shjjpdhy; ,uhaDf;F mgakpl;L Mya Ntiyia epWj;jg;gz;zpdhHfs;.

rpyfhyk; nrd;wgpd; fp.K.445,y; mjHr];lh neNfkpahit vUrNyk; Myaq;fq;fisf; fl;Lk;gb mjpfhuk; nfhLj;jDg;gpdhd;. MHjr];lhtpd; fPo; cj;jpNahfj;jpypUe;j v];whitAk; mjw;FKd; ,uh[h vUrNyKf;F mDg;gpapUe;jhd;. mtd; tpNr\kha; khHf;f tp\aq;fis Idq;fSf;Fg; Nghjpj;J mitfis mDrhpf;Fk;gb nra;jhd;. rd;gyhj; rkhhpahtpy; mjpgjpahapUe;J ,tHfSf;F tpNuhjkha; fhhpaq;fis elg;gpj;jhd;.

fpNuf;fhpd; MSif
(fp.K 332-820)


ngHrpa ,uh[;aj;ij kfh mnyf;rhe;jH ifg;gw;wpd nghOJ A+jh rkhhpah Njrq;fSk; mtDila MSiff;Fs;shapd. MdhYk; ngHrpa mjpfhhpfSf;Fg; gjpyhf fpNuf;f mjpfhhpfs; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lijj; jtpu NtW tpj;jpahrq;fspUf;ftpy;iy. A+jUk; vq;Fk;Ngha;f; FbNawp jq;fs; njhopy;fisr; nra;a re;jHg;gk; fpilj;jJ. MfNt Mkhd; mfh];NtUf;Fr; nrhd;djhtJ "ckJ ,uh[;aj;jpd; rfyehLfspYKs;s [dq;fSf;Fs;Ns xUtpj [dq;fs; rpjWz;L guk;gpapUf;fpwhHfs;" (v];.3:9).

mnyf;re;jphpahtpy; mNef A+jH FbNawp mtHfSila ghi\iaf; fw;Wf;nfhz;L Ntjhfkq;fis mtHfSila ghi\apy; nkhop ngaHj;jjpdhy; Gw[hjpahUk; mitfis thrpj;jwpaj; jUzk; fpilj;jJ. mNjhL rpy a+jUk; me;epa NjtHfis tzq;fTk; NeHe;jJ.
 

rPhpa MSif
(fp.K320-198)


mf;fhyj;jpy; gy];jPdh ehL gpj;njhNyh (Ptolemies) vd;Nghhpd; MSifapd; fPopUe;jJ. gpd;G rPhpah ,uh[hthfpa me;jpNahF (vg;gpNgdp];) vd;gtd; vUrNykpy; MSif nra;J A+j khHf;fj;ijAk; mtHfspd; nfhs;iffisAk; mopf;fj; jiyapl;L Njthyaj;ijAk; ghpRj;jf; Fiyr;ryhf;fpdhd; (fp.K168). mg;nghOJ kj;jj;jpah vd;w A+jDk; mtDila Fkhudhd kf;NfngaUk; vOk;gp vUrNyik rPhpahtpd; ifapapUe;J tpLtpj;jhd; (fp.K 167).
 

kf;Nfngahpd; MSif
(fp.K 165-135).


kf;Nfnga A+jh]; vd;gtd; jiytdha; epd;W Njthyaj;ijg; gpujp\;ilg;gz;zp NtW mNef jpUj;Jtq;fisAk; nra;jhd;. mtd; khpj;j gpd; mtDila rNfhjuH Nahthd; rpkpNahd; vd;gtHfs; mjpfhuk; nrYj;jp te;jhHfs;. gpd;G Nuhkuhad; nghk;gP vd;w Nrdhjpgjpia mDg;gp vUrNyikf; ifg;gw;wpdhd; (fp.K63).

Nuhkhpd; MSif
(fp.K 63- fp.gp 300)


,JNka re;jjpaDk; A+Njahtpy; nry;thf;FKs;s me;jpg;Ngw;wH (Antipator) vd;Dk; xU A+jd; NuhkUf;F cjtpahapUe;jhd;.

,jpdpkpj;jk; Nuhkuhadhfpa [Pypa]; (Julius Caesar) jd;Dila kfd; VNuhJ vd;gtid A+Njahtpd; Njrhjpgjpahf epakpj;jhd;. gpd;G fp.K 47-y; rPrH nfhy;yg;gl;lhd;. VNuhJ A+jhpd; ,uh[hthf kfh VNuhJ vd;wiof;fg;gl;lhd;.

fp.K 4-y; ,td; khpj;j NghJ ,uh[;ak; ,tDila %d;W Fkhudhfpa mHnfyhA me;jpg;gh]; gpypg;G vd;gtHfSf;fpilapy; gphpf;fg;gl;lJ. mHnfyhATf;F A+NjahTk; me;jpg;ghRf;F fypNyahTk; nguahTk; gpypg;GTf;F tlgf;fj;JehLk; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld. fp.gp 6-y; mHnfyhAit ePf;fp A+NjahitAk; rPhpahitAk; xd;WNrHj;J xU Nuhk Njrhjpgjpia Vw;gLj;jpdhd;. gpd;G nghe;jpA gpyhj;J (Pontius Pilate) ,e;j ];jhdj;Jf;F te;jhd;.

,tDila ehl;fspy; A+jH fyfk; gz;zpdjpdpkpj;jk; NuhkH vUrNyikf; ifg;gw;wpdhHfs;. mtHfSila Nrdhjpgjp jPj;J (Titus) Njthyaj;ijAk; Rl;nlhpj;jhd; (fp.K.70).

,jd;gpd; A+Njah Nuhk ,uh[;aj;jpw;Ff; fPo;g;gl;bUe;Jk; RahjPdKk; XH mstpw;Ff; fpilj;jJ. ugPkhuhy; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l rdjhpd; (Sanhedrin) rq;fk; mtHfSf;fpUe;jJ. me;jr; rq;fk; khHf;f tp\aq;fisAk; MSiff;Fhpa tp\aq;fisAk; XOq;F nra;jJ. Mdhy; Njthya thpg;gzk; NuhkGhpapypUe;j [Pgpl;lH NfhapYf;F mDg;gg;gl;lJ.

,g;gbapUf;ifapy; fp.gp 132-y; ghHnfhr;rh (Barkoche) mf;fpgh> ugP> vd;gtdhy; Vtg;gl;L NuhkUf;F tpNuhjkha; fyfk; nra;jjpdpkpj;jk; mtHfs; Njrj;ij Kw;whf mopj;J [dq;fisAk; GwNjrj;jpw;F Juj;jptpl;lhHfs;. mNjhL ,];uNtyUf;Fj; NjrKk; MyaKkpd;wp rigAk; rq;fKkpd;wp jq;fSila Njrnkd;W nrhy;y ,lKkpy;yhky; Nghapw;W. ,t;tpjkha; rpjwbf;fg;gl;l ,];uNtyH fhyk; Nghfg;Nghf gbg;gbaha; jpUk;gTk; jq;fs; Ngha;f;nfhz;NlapUe;jhHfs;.

fp.gp ehd;fhk; E}w;whz;by; fhd;];ld;ild; (Constantine) vUrNyikj; jpUk;gf; fl;bdhd;. Vohk; E}w;whz;by; mJ ngHrpahpd; iftrkhapw;W. rpYit tPuHfs; (Crusaders) 88 MSif nra;jhHfs;. gpd;G JUf;fp ,uh[;ak; gy];jPdhNthL NrHe;J fp.gp 1517 Kjy; 1917 tiu murhl;rp nra;jhHfs;.

fp.gp 1914-y; cyf kfhAj;jk; ele;jJ. mjd; Kbtpy; 24-10-1918 md;W ,uh[;aq;fspd; If;fpa rq;fk; $b gy];jPdhit Mq;fpNya MSiff;Fl;gLj;jpdJ.

fp.gp 1948-y; If;fpa ehl;Lg; nghJr;rig Njrj;ij A+jUf;Fk; muhgpaUf;Fk; ,ilapy; gphpj;jhHfs;. ,NjhL ,];uNty; ,uh[;ak; kWgbAk; cw;gj;jpahapw;W. MdhYk; vUrNykpd; xU gFjp muhgpahpd; trkpUf;Fk;tiu vUrNyk; Gw[hjpauhy; kpjpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ (Y}f;.21:24) vd;Nw nrhy;yNtz;Lk;.

fp.gp 1967 Mk; tUlk; ,];uNtyUf;Fk; muhgpaUf;Fkpilapy; ele;jAj;jj;jpy; vUrNyk; KOikAk; gy];jPdhtpd; NtW rpy gFjpfSk; ,];uNtyhpd; MjPdj;jpw;Fs;shapd.

MfNt Gw[hjpahhpd; fhyq;fs; epiwNtwpw;W vd;Nw nrhy;yyhk;.

,];uNtypd; rhpj;jpuk;


1. vfpg;jpypUe;j fhyk; 144 tUlk; (fp.K. 1635-1491) (ahj;.1-12 mjpfhuq;fs;).
2. tdhe;jug; gpahzk; 44 tUlk; (fp.K. 1491-1451) (ahj;. mjp. 12 Kjy; cgh.34).
3. fhdhdpy; ,uh[hf;fs; tiu. 365 tUlk; (fp.K. 1451-1095) (NahRth. epahahjpgjpfs;. &j;. 1rhK).
4. ,uh[hf;fspd; fhyk;. ,uh[;ak; gphpf;fg;gLk;Kd; 120 tUlk; (fp.K. 1095-975) (1rhK.8. 1,uh.11. 1ehsh.10. 2ehsh.9).
5. ,uh[;ak; gphpe;jgpd; 253 tUlk; (fp.K. 975-722).
6. A+j ,uh[;ak; 135 tUlk; (fp.K. 722-587).


fpNuhf;fhpd; MSif (fp.K. 332-320).
rPhpahpd; MSif (fp.K. 320-198).
kf;fNgahpd; MSif (fp.K. 165-135).
Nuhkhpd; MSif (fp.K. 63- fp.gp. 300).
JUf;fpapd; MSif (fp.gp. 1517.1917).
gphpj;jhdpa MSif (fp.gp. 1917-1948).
RahjPdk; xU gFjp (fp.gp. 1948-1967).
,];uNty; muR (fp.gp. 1967).

 ,];uNtypd; filrpf;fhyk;


,];uNtyH jq;fs; Njtid tpl;L me;epa NjtHfisr; Nrtpj;jjpdhy; rpiwg;gl;Lg; NghdhHfs;. mjd;gpd; rhuhspd; %ykha; te;j Mgpufhkpd; re;jjpf;Ff; fHj;jH thf;Fj;jj;jk; gz;zpd Njrj;ij Mfhhpd; %ykhf te;j re;jjpahH ifg;gw;wpdhHfs;. ,g;NghJ Gw[hjpahhpd; fhyk; KbAk;NghJ me;j Njrj;jpd;Nky; muhgpaUf;F xH chpikAkpy;iy.

,];uNtyH jpUk;gpte;J f\;uj;NjhL tdhe;jukhd Njrj;ij VNjhd; Njhl;lk; Nghyhf;FfpwhHfs; (vNu. 31:4. vrh. 35:1. NahNty;. 2:3).

MdhYk; filrpf;fhyj;jpy; NfhNkUk; njhfHkh tk;rj;jhUk; tljpirapypUe;J ,uhZtq;fNshL te;J ,];uNtyiuj; jhf;FthHfs;. mg;nghOJ fHj;jH fy;kioiaAk; mf;fpdpiaAk; tU\pf;fg; gz;ZthH. mtHfs; vy;NyhUk; ,];uNty; kiyfspy; tpOthHfs; (vNr. mjp. 38.39). mtHfSila MAjq;fis vhpf;f VO tUlkhFk; (vNr. 39:9). gpNujq;fisg; Gijf;f VO khjk; gpbf;Fk; (vNr. 39:14-15). Aj;jk; elf;ifapy; fHj;jHjhNk jhprdkhthH (rf. 12:10). mtH Nkfq;fSlNd tUk;NghJ fz;fs; ahTk; mtiuf; fhZk;. G+kpapd; Nfhj;jpuj;jhnuy;yhUk; mtiug; ghHj;Jg; Gyk;GthHfs; (ntsp. 1:7).

fhyk; rkPgk;. ,uh[;aj;ij ,];uNtYf;Fj; jpUk;gf; nfhLf;Fk; fhyk; tUfpwJ (mg;. 1:7).

vUrNyk; fHj;jUf;Fg; ghpRj;jkhapUf;Fk;Ntis rkPgpf;fpwJ (rf. 14:16-20).

NjtDila ,];uNty;


A+jdhdhYk; Gw[hjpahdhdhYk; NjtDila fpUigiag;ngw;W GJrpU\;bahNthnuy;yhUk; NjtDila ,];uNty; vdg;glyhk; (fyh.6:16> Nuhk. 9:7-9).

                                                                

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